Discover Telangana Culture

Telangana Culture is a rich and diverse amalgamation of various customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices that have evolved over several centuries. This cultural heritage encompasses art, dance, music, literature, cuisine, festivals and religious beliefs that are unique to the region. Telangana’s history can be traced back to ancient times when it was ruled by dynasties such as the Satavahanas and Kakatiyas. The cultural influences of these dynasties can still be seen in the region today.

The traditional dance forms of Telangana are renowned for their grace and beauty. Performed during festivals and special occasions, these dances reflect the region’s rich cultural heritage. Music is another integral part of Telangana culture with an array of musical instruments like Dappu, Nadaswaram, Tambura and Veena being used in performances. The cuisine in Telangana is famous for its spicy taste with dishes such as Biryani being popular across India. Overall, Telangana culture reflects the diversity that exists within India while also showcasing its unique identity through its art forms and traditions.

Key Takeaways

  • Telangana has a rich and diverse culture dating back to Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, and Qutb Shahis dynasties, with traditional dance forms, music, and cuisine being integral parts of it.
  • Festivals like Bonalu, Bathukamma, and Ugadi showcase the cultural significance of Telangana, while traditional handicrafts like Dokra metal casting, Pembarthi brassware, and Cheriyal scroll painting reflect the distinct style and use of indigenous materials.
  • Telugu language and literature are significant components of Telangana’s literary tradition, with famous Telugu poets and writers contributing significantly to it.
  • While traditional customs and traditions are being adapted and evolved due to societal changes, there is a deep-seated appreciation for local customs and traditions, with festivals providing continuity while reflecting contemporary times.

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Historical Overview of Telangana Culture

The historical overview of Telangana culture traces the evolution of its unique traditions, customs, and values that have been shaped by various dynasties and rulers over centuries. Telangana has a rich cultural heritage that dates back to the time of the Satavahanas who ruled the region from 230 BCE to 220 CE. During this period, Buddhism flourished in Telangana, leaving behind several monuments such as stupas and chaityas.

Over time, there were several evolutionary changes in Telangana’s culture due to the influence of various dynasties such as Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahis, Mughals and the British. The Kakatiya dynasty (1083–1323) played a significant role in shaping Telangana’s culture by introducing many architectural marvels such as Warangal Fort and Thousand Pillar Temple. Similarly, during the reign of Qutb Shahis (1518-1687), Hyderabad city emerged as a center for art, literature and architecture.

The cultural significance of Telangana can be seen in its diverse range of festivals such as Bonalu (worshiping Goddess Mahakali), Bathukamma (celebrating female empowerment) and Ugadi (Telugu New Year). These festivals showcase not only religious beliefs but also reflect social unity among people from different castes and religions. With such a rich history behind it, traditional dance forms like Perini Sivatandavam have become an integral part of Telangana’s cultural identity.

Traditional Dance Forms

This section will delve into the traditional dance forms of Telangana, namely Kathakali, Kuchipudi, and Perini Shivatandavam. These dance forms are an integral part of Telangana’s cultural heritage and are widely practiced by both professionals and amateurs alike. Each dance form has its unique style, music, costume, and makeup that make them distinct from each other.


Kathakali is a traditional dance form from the Indian state of Telangana that combines music, dance, and acting to tell stories from Hindu mythology. This art form has a long history and evolution, dating back to the 17th century when it originated in Kerala. Kathakali means “story-play”in Malayalam, the language spoken in Kerala. It is one of the oldest theatre forms in India and has been recognized as one of the eight classical dance forms by the Sangeet Natak Akademi.

Kathakali performances are characterized by elaborate makeup and costumes that add to its dramatic effect. The performers spend hours getting ready for their roles, which involve intricate facial painting and dressing up in heavy attire with detailed accessories. The makeup consists of vivid colors that signify various characters such as green for heroes or gods, red for demons or evil characters, black for women or forest dwellers, and yellow for peace-loving characters like sages.

The costumes are equally elaborate with flowing skirts made of silk accompanied by jewelry pieces like anklets, bangles, earrings, necklaces etc., made of gold or silver. In summary, Kathakali’s unique style incorporates a blend of storytelling through music and dance while being visually stunning with its elaborate makeup and costumes.

Moving on to Kuchipudi…


Originating from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, Kuchipudi is a classical dance form that combines storytelling through music and dance with intricate footwork and facial expressions. The name ‘Kuchipudi’ is derived from a village in Andhra Pradesh where this art form was originally performed by Brahmin men. Unlike other classical dances, Kuchipudi involves both male and female dancers, and traditionally narrates mythological stories from Hindu epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Kuchipudi’s unique style lies in its emphasis on gracefulness, fluidity of movement, and precise footwork. Dancers move their feet to create rhythmic patterns while also using hand gestures known as mudras to convey emotions or tell stories. Kuchipudi dance costumes are also an important component of this art form. Male dancers usually wear dhoti (a traditional Indian garment) with a shirt or vest while female dancers wear colorful sarees adorned with jewelry. Overall, Kuchipudi has evolved into a complex art form that requires years of training to master its techniques but ultimately provides dancers with a platform to express themselves creatively through storytelling.

Moving onto the next section about ‘perini shivatandavam’, this dance form is another example of Telangana’s rich cultural heritage that has been preserved over centuries.

Perini Shivatandavam

One of the distinguishing features of Perini Shivatandavam is its incorporation of vigorous movements and poses, inspired by the ancient martial art form known as ‘Kalaripayattu’. This dance form originated in Telangana and was performed exclusively by male dancers. The performance usually begins with an invocation to Lord Shiva, followed by a series of intricate steps that depict his Tandava dance.

The Perini dance tradition was popularized during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty in Telangana. The dance was performed to invoke courage and prepare warriors for battle. Today, it is considered one of the most dynamic forms of Indian classical dance and is often performed at cultural events across India. As we move on to explore the topic of music and musical instruments in Telangana culture, it is important to note how closely intertwined they are with the Perini Shivatandavam performance.

Music and Musical Instruments

Music and musical instruments play a significant role in Telangana culture, showcasing the diverse range of traditional and modern music genres. The evolution of Telangana music is rooted in classical Indian music but has been influenced by the region’s unique history and culture. Folk songs from various communities such as Lambadi, Banjara, Golla, and Kuruma add to the richness of Telangana’s musical heritage.

The region also boasts a vast array of musical instruments that are used in performances and festivals. Some popular ones include the dappu (a percussion instrument), tasha (drum), harmonium (keyboard-like instrument), sarangi (stringed instrument), flute, and saxophone. In recent times, musicians have started fusing traditional instruments with modern genres like rock, jazz, and hip hop to create new sounds that appeal to younger audiences.

Telangana cuisine is another aspect that showcases the rich cultural diversity of this region.


Telangana cuisine is a rich blend of Mughlai and Telugu culinary traditions. Hyderabadi Biryani, a popular dish made with basmati rice, meat, and aromatic spices, is a hallmark of the region’s cuisine. Other traditional dishes that are widely enjoyed in Telangana include Telangana Style Pulusu (a tangy stew), Sarva Pindi (a savory pancake made from rice flour), and Makki ki Roti (a flatbread made from maize flour).

Hyderabadi Biryani

Hyderabadi Biryani is a popular rice dish that originated in the Indian city of Hyderabad and is traditionally made with basmati rice, spices, and meat. The dish has become an iconic representation of the culture and cuisine of Telangana. The origin and history of Hyderabadi Biryani can be traced back to the time when Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk as the governor of Hyderabad in the late 17th century. It was during this period that Hyderabadi Biryani was created by blending Mughlai and Iranian cuisine with local Telugu flavors.

The unique taste of Hyderabadi Biryani comes from its spice variations, which include cardamom, cinnamon, bay leaves, cloves, coriander powder, cumin seeds, saffron, mint leaves, and green chilies. The meat used in the preparation can be chicken or lamb cooked with caramelized onions along with yogurt for tenderness. Additionally, it is layered with fried onions and served with raita (yogurt-based side dish), mirchi ka salan (spicy chili pepper curry), or bagara baingan (eggplant curry). This mouth-watering dish has gained immense popularity worldwide due to its unique blend of spices and flavors that represent Telangana’s rich culinary heritage.

Telangana-style Pulusu is another traditional dish that reflects the unique flavor profile of Telangana cuisine without using any personal pronouns or steps in this paragraph transition.

Telangana Style Pulusu

One traditional dish that showcases the diverse flavors of Indian cuisine is Telangana Style Pulusu. This tangy and spicy stew is made with tamarind, vegetables, and spices. The dish has been a staple in Telangana culture for generations and has several variations across the region. Traditional pulusu recipes include ingredients such as drumsticks, brinjal, onion, tomato, and chili peppers.

The preparation of pulusu involves simmering the vegetables in a tamarind-based broth until they are cooked to perfection. The use of spices such as fenugreek seeds, cumin seeds, mustard seeds, curry leaves, turmeric powder adds depth to the flavor profile. Some variations also include coconut milk or jaggery for added sweetness. Telangana Style Pulusu makes for an excellent accompaniment with rice or roti and is perfect for those who like their food tangy and spicy. Moving on from this traditional delicacy to another one – sarva pindi and makki ki roti – we explore more about the diversity in Telangana’s culinary treasures.

Sarva Pindi and Makki ki Roti

Sarva Pindi and Makki ki Roti are two traditional Telangana delicacies that have been passed down through generations of the Telugu-speaking people. These dishes showcase the unique culinary traditions of Telangana, which is known for its spicy and flavorful cuisine. Sarva Pindi is a savory pancake made from rice flour, chana dal, onions, green chilies, and spices. This dish is typically prepared during breakfast or as an evening snack in Telangana households. On the other hand, Makki ki Roti is a flatbread made from cornmeal and served with various vegetarian or non-vegetarian curries.

The cultural significance of food in Telangana cannot be overstated. Traditional dishes like Sarva Pindi and Makki ki Roti are not only delicious but also represent the rich heritage of this region. Food plays an essential role in festivals such as Sankranti, where people prepare these dishes to share with family and friends. Moreover, these delicacies reflect the agricultural practices of Telangana as they use locally grown ingredients to create mouth-watering flavors that are distinct to this region. Moving forward to our next section about festivals…


The state of Telangana in India is known for its vibrant and colorful festivals that reflect the rich cultural heritage of the region. Bonalu, Bathukamma, and Ugadi are three of the most important festivals celebrated in Telangana. Bonalu is a Hindu festival dedicated to Goddess Mahakali, while Bathukamma is a floral festival honoring Goddess Gauri. Ugadi marks the beginning of a new year according to the Hindu lunar calendar and is celebrated with great enthusiasm by people across Telangana.


Bonalu, a vibrant and colorful festival celebrated in Telangana, is dedicated to the worship of Goddess Mahakali. It is usually observed during the months of July-August and is particularly significant for women who offer prayers for the prosperity and well-being of their families. The festival starts with the Ghatam procession where women carry pots filled with rice, curd, and jaggery on their heads while dancing to traditional music. These offerings are then presented to the goddess in her various forms such as Pochamma, Yellamma, Maisamma among others.

The festival has deep roots in Telangana’s religious traditions and is believed to have originated from an ancient practice where people used to offer food grains to Goddess Mahakali as a way of thanking her for protecting them from epidemics. Bonalu also reflects the cultural diversity of Telangana as it brings people from different communities together who participate in the festivities with great enthusiasm. The next subtopic will be about Bathukamma which shares similar characteristics with Bonalu but has its unique features that make it distinct.


Celebrated during the months of September-October, Bathukamma is a floral festival in which women make colorful flower arrangements and offer them to Goddess Gauri. The festival marks the beginning of winter and is celebrated with great enthusiasm and fervor in Telangana. Women dress up in traditional attire, sing folk dance around Bathukammas (flower stacks), and immerse them in water bodies.

The cultural significance of Bathukamma lies in its association with nature worship and agriculture. The festival celebrates the abundance of nature, particularly flowers, which are an integral part of Telangana’s culture. It also symbolizes the close relationship between humans and nature, highlighting the importance of preserving our environment for future generations. This vibrant celebration has become an important aspect of Telangana’s identity, reflecting its rich cultural heritage that dates back centuries ago.

As we move into discussing Ugadi next, it is important to note that this festival holds immense significance for people from different regions across India.


Ugadi, also known as the Telugu New Year, is a traditional festival that is observed with great enthusiasm by people from various regions of India. The word ‘Ugadi’ is derived from two Sanskrit words – ‘yuga’ meaning age and ‘adi’ meaning beginning. Ugadi marks the beginning of a new era or cycle and is celebrated on the first day of Chaitra month in the Hindu calendar (usually falls in March or April).

Ugadi celebrations vary across different regions but generally involve cleaning and decorating homes, preparing special dishes, visiting temples, exchanging gifts with loved ones, and wearing new clothes. One of the most important traditions associated with Ugadi is Panchanga Sravanam, which involves listening to predictions for the upcoming year based on calculations made by astrologers. Overall, Ugadi symbolizes hope, prosperity, and new beginnings for individuals and communities alike. As we move into discussing clothing and attire in Telangana culture, it is worth noting that Ugadi plays an important role in shaping fashion trends as people often wear traditional outfits during this festival.

Clothing and Attire

Traditional Telangana clothing and attire has a rich cultural significance that reflects the region’s history and social customs. There is a great deal of diversity in the traditional weaves and fabrics used, which are often made by skilled artisans using age-old techniques. For example, Dharmavaram silk is known for its intricate designs and vibrant colors, while Pochampally Ikat features bold geometric patterns.

Despite this strong tradition of traditional clothing, there has also been a rise in modern fusion styles that incorporate elements from both Western fashion and traditional Telangana dress. This includes outfits such as kurtas paired with jeans or skirts, as well as sarees with contemporary prints or embellishments. These modern interpretations allow individuals to express their unique sense of style while still honoring their cultural heritage.

Art and handicrafts have long been important aspects of Telangana culture, influencing not just fashion but also home decor, jewelry-making, and more. From hand-woven rugs to intricately carved woodwork pieces to delicate silver filigree jewelry, these crafts reflect the skill and creativity of local artisans. By preserving these traditions through ongoing support for these industries and education about their importance to the region’s identity, it is possible to ensure that future generations continue to appreciate the beauty of Telangana culture in all its forms.

Art and Handicrafts

Clothing and attire are significant aspects of any culture, as they represent the collective identity and values of a community. In Telangana, traditional clothing is a reflection of the state’s rich cultural heritage. However, clothing is not the only form of expression in Telangana; art and handicrafts also play an essential role in preserving the state’s cultural legacy.

Artisanal techniques have been passed down through generations in Telangana. These techniques involve using indigenous materials such as clay, wood, metal, and cloth to create beautiful works of art that showcase the region’s distinct style. One such example is Dokra metal casting that dates back to ancient times when artisans made figurines depicting various gods and goddesses from molten brass.

Other popular handicrafts include Pembarthi brassware, Cheriyal scrolls, Bidriware crafts, and Nirmal paintings. Each craft has its unique style that reflects the creativity of Telangana’s skilled artisans. The state government has set up various institutions to promote these crafts by providing training to budding artists and organizing exhibitions both nationally and internationally.

Art and handicrafts are integral parts of Telangana culture that bear testimony to its rich history. Through artisanal techniques using indigenous materials, skilled artisans continue to produce exquisite pieces of artwork that showcase their creativity while preserving their heritage for future generations to appreciate. Moving forward into the next section about literature let us explore how language plays an equally important role in shaping a culture as much as its visual arts do.


The literary tradition of Telangana is rich and diverse, with Telugu literature being a significant component. Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India, with a history that dates back at least 1,500 years. The language has been used by famous poets and writers to create works that reflect the cultural, social, and political climate of their times.

Telugu Literature

One of the most notable contributions of Telangana to the literary world is its rich tradition of Telugu literature. Telugu literature has evolved over time with changes in language, style, and themes. The early period of Telugu literature saw the emergence of works such as Nannaya’s Mahabharata and Palkuriki Somanatha’s Basava Purana, which were written in a mix of Sanskrit and Telugu. Later on, during the Kakatiya dynasty (12th-14th century), works such as Manucharitra by Allasani Peddana and Panduranga Mahatyam by Pingali Suranna were written entirely in Telugu.

In modern times, Telugu literature has seen adaptations to contemporary themes such as social issues, politics, and human relationships. Some popular authors who have contributed to this evolution include Kaloji Narayana Rao, Dasarathi Krishnamacharyulu, and Sri Sri. Their works reflect the changing societal norms and perspectives of their times while still maintaining the essence of traditional Telugu literature. With these evolutionary changes in mind, it is worth exploring some famous telugu poets and writers who have contributed significantly to this rich literary tradition.

Famous Telugu Poets and Writers

Renowned for their contributions to the rich literary tradition of Telugu, famous poets and writers have left an indelible mark on the evolution of Telugu literature, spanning from the early period to modern times. Their influential works are a testament to their talent and skill in capturing the essence of Telangana culture through poetry and prose. Some of the most notable names in Telugu literature include:

  1. Nannaya Bhattaraka: Considered one of the pioneers of Telugu literature, Nannaya is credited with translating the Mahabharata into Telugu during the 11th century.
  2. Allasani Peddana: A prominent poet and writer during the Vijayanagara Empire, Peddana’s works are known for their intricate language and vivid imagery.
  3. Gurajada Appa Rao: A social reformer and writer, Gurajada is widely recognized for his play Kanyasulkam which satirized dowry system prevalent in society at that time.

These writers were part of various literary movements that shaped Telugu literature including Vemana movement, Adikavi Nannaya University Movement, etc. These movements brought about significant changes in style and content while preserving traditional values that continue to resonate with readers today.

These writers have greatly enriched Telugu literature with their creative expression and intellectual depth. Their works continue to be cherished by readers who appreciate the beauty and significance of this rich literary tradition. The evolution of this language has been influenced by numerous factors over time as we shall see next – telugu language and its significance…

Telugu Language and Its Significance

Telugu language has a rich history and significance, being one of the Dravidian languages spoken in India. Its origin dates back to over 2000 years ago, with its earliest known written text being found on inscriptions dating back to the 6th century CE. Over time, Telugu language evolved into a distinct language with its own unique grammar and vocabulary. It is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and is also widely spoken in other Indian states such as Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Odisha.

In modern times, Telugu has become an important language for literature, media, education and commerce. The advent of technology has further popularized the usage of this language through various online platforms like social media. Apart from India, significant populations of Telugu speakers can be found in countries like the United States, Australia and Canada. The impact of Telugu culture on these communities is evident through their continued use of their mother tongue even while living abroad. Understanding the history behind this ancient language allows us to appreciate its cultural significance even more deeply as we delve into religious beliefs and practices next.

Religious Beliefs and Practices

Religious beliefs and practices are deeply ingrained in the culture of Telangana, with a diverse range of traditions and customs observed across different communities. The state is home to several religions such as Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Jainism. Each religion has its own set of ritualistic practices and spiritual beliefs that have been passed down through generations. Temples, mosques, churches, and other places of worship are an integral part of the state’s landscape.

For Hindus in Telangana, rituals play a significant role in their daily lives. From performing puja (worship) at home to visiting temples during festivals such as Bonalu or Bathukamma, religious observances are a way of life for many. Similarly, Muslims offer prayers five times a day and observe fasts during Ramadan. Christians too celebrate Christmas and Easter with great fervor. Besides these major religions, smaller communities such as Buddhists who reside in Adilabad district also follow their own unique set of customs.

Despite the adherence to traditional religious practices in Telangana, there have been some contemporary influences that have led to adaptation over time. One example is the adoption of yoga among people from various faiths due to its health benefits. Moreover, many people now prefer celebrating festivals with eco-friendly measures in mind by avoiding plastic decorations or fireworks that cause pollution. Such changes reflect how even traditional practices can evolve with time while still holding onto their core values and beliefs.

Contemporary Influence and Adaptation

Contemporary societal changes in Telangana have led to the adaptation and evolution of traditional religious practices while still holding onto core values and beliefs. The influence of globalization and modernization has created a shift towards a more open-minded, inclusive society that is willing to embrace change while still preserving its cultural heritage. As the region becomes more connected with the rest of the world, Telangana’s culture is also becoming more dynamic, diverse, and adaptive.

  1. The influence of globalization on Telangana’s culture can be seen in various aspects such as fashion, music, food, and entertainment. Traditional clothing styles are being replaced by modern outfits designed for comfort and style. Music genres like hip-hop and pop are gaining popularity among younger generations who seek out new experiences beyond their cultural boundaries.
  2. Modernization has brought about significant changes in the way people relate to each other within families and communities. While traditional values like respect for elders remain strong, there is an increasing emphasis on individualism and personal freedom. This shift towards individualism has resulted in changing attitudes towards marriage, dating, gender roles, education, career choices – all contributing to shaping a new Telanganite identity.
  3. Despite these changes wrought by globalization and modernization on Telangana’s culture over time , there remains a deep-seated appreciation for local customs and traditions that continue to shape daily life across the state . From festivals like Bathukamma , Bonalu , Ugadi , to religious events like Maha Shivaratri or Ram Navami – these celebrations provide continuity between past generations’ values systems while ushering in new ways of celebrating them that reflect contemporary times.
  4. In conclusion 21st-century Telangana reflects both continuity as well as adaptation when it comes to its cultural practices . Its ability to evolve whilst retaining core values makes it unique amongst Indian states; ready for what tomorrow may hold whilst honoring where it came from yesterday – which can be seen in the current societal changes, influenced by globalization and modernization.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the population of Telangana and how has it impacted the culture?

The population of Telangana has grown rapidly over the years, which has had a significant impact on its cultural landscape. This growth has brought about various changes to the region’s traditions, customs, and social norms.

2. Are there any famous Telanganites who have influenced the culture significantly?

Influential Telanganites have made significant cultural contributions to the region. Notable figures include poet and writer Kaloji Narayana Rao, singer Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao, and revolutionary leader Komaram Bheem, among others. Their impact on Telangana’s culture is widely recognized and celebrated.

3. What is the role of women in Telangana culture and how has it evolved over time?

The role of women in Telangana has evolved over time, from being confined to domestic duties to participating actively in social and economic activities. Their importance is recognized for the empowerment of the society.

4. How has modernization and globalization affected traditional Telangana culture?

The impact of technology and changing societal norms has led to significant changes in traditional culture across the world. Telangana culture is no exception, as modernization and globalization have influenced its customs, values, beliefs, and practices.

5. What are some lesser-known rituals and customs that are still practiced in Telangana?

Several traditional practices in Telangana hold cultural significance, such as the Bathukamma festival and Bonalu procession. Lesser-known customs include Gollakalapam, a dance form to appease goddess Durga, and Chindu Yakshaganam, a musical performance blending mythological stories with social issues.


Telangana, a state in southern India, has a rich cultural heritage that is steeped in history and tradition. The culture of Telangana is deeply influenced by its historical past, with the region being ruled by dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, and Qutb Shahis. This has resulted in a unique blend of Hindu and Islamic traditions, which can be seen in various aspects of Telangana’s culture.

One of the most prominent features of Telangana’s culture is its traditional dance forms such as Perini Sivatandavam, Lambadi and Chindu Bhagavatham. These dance forms are characterized by their intricate footwork and graceful movements that reflect the region’s ancient martial arts practices. Similarly, Telangana’s music scene also reflects this rich cultural tapestry through instruments such as Veena,Violin Tabla etc.

In terms of cuisine , Hyderabadi biryani stands out as one of the most popular dishes from the region along with other delicacies such as Mirchi ka Salan (a spicy curry made with chilli peppers) and Haleem (a meat-based stew). Festivals like Bonalu,Jathara or Sammakka Sarakka Jathara,give people an opportunity to celebrate their religious beliefs while showcasing their vibrant cultural identity through colourful rituals.

The artistry and craftsmanship of Telanganites can be seen through their handicrafts industry that includes famous Bidriware (ornamental metal work), Nirmal paintings ,woodcarving etc. Literature too occupies an important place in Telugu literary canon with eminent authors like Kaloji Narayana Rao,Tummala Kshetrayya,Pingali Suranna,Bhakta Ramadas etc., having hailed from this land.

Overall,Telangana’s culture is marked by its unique blend of history, religion,and artforms. The region’s cultural traditions have been passed down through generations and continue to be celebrated today through various festivals, dances, music, literature etc. And with the influence of modernization and globalization,the culture has evolved to adapt new trends without losing its essence making it one of the prominent cultures in India that stands as a testimony to the rich heritage of the country.

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